What did the MK use as their first level of violent response after unsuccessful peaceful protests were met with police brutality?

ITGS 400 Explorations in Leadership


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Required Texts:

Read Mandela Part 7 Rivonia

Mandela, Nelson. (1995) Long Walk to Freedom. New York: Little Brown and Company Paperback. ISBN: 0-31654818-9. (Make sure that you have the full version, not an abridged version, otherwise you’ll not be able to complete assignments).

Response to Materials

Assignment Instructions:

· Do not delete the questions – simply indent your answers to retain the numbering system.

· Use a formal writing style and proofread for correct use of language.

· Write a short paragraph for each question, addressing each of the points mentioned.

The aim is generally threefold:

(1) to demonstrate your familiarity with the course materials. Provide as much information you consider necessary to achieve this end. Cite the page number in the text where you found the information using this format: “(Mandela, 2012, p. 5)” and for films, cite the director and date e.g., “(Attenborough, 1982)” or in the case of my own instructor videos, “(Woodward, 2007)”. For the book, check what date your edition is on the front inside cover, it might be the original from 1995, or a later publication. If you have an audio book, it likely states the publication date somewhere.

(2) to think critically about issues and comment on them

(3) to self-reflect on your own development of leadership to date and potential for the future. This is considered in a much broader sense than leadership within any official position and includes day-to-day lifestyle.

Mandela: Part 7 Rivonia

1. The MK (military wing of the ANC) laid out a strategy of several levels of violent resistance that were to be used when considered necessary.

(A) What did the MK use as their first level of violent response after unsuccessful peaceful protests were met with police brutality?

(B) Provide your views on the use of violence on either side and explain why you hold these.

2. (A) Once arrested, why did Mandela decide to represent himself?

(B) Comment on the advantages of doing this and how well you think he achieved his goals.

3. Mandela’s second wife, Winnie, supported Mandela’s political activities.

(A) In what ways did she show her support?

(B) Comment on the value supporters can provide to a leader and how you might possibly envisage supporting a leader in your own setting.

4. (A) The UN voted for what motion regarding South Africa while Mandela was on trial? (B) Comment on what you think of the role of the international community on impacting situations outside of their own countries.

Amandla: A Revolution in Four-Part Harmony

Movie: Amandla Part 1 https://hml.ewu.edu/player?autostart=n&fullscreen=y&width=720&height=480&videoId=3657&quality=hi&captions=n&chapterId=0

Movie: Amandla Part 2


This film explains the role of music in the liberation struggle in South Africa. Music is seen to play many roles. The film includes much original news footage, in addition to the musical performances and reflections of musicians. In the film, Hugh Masekela recounts Dizzy Gillespie saying “I’d like to be part of your revolution because your people are always dancing and singing.”

5. Hugh Masekela sang about the train and loved ones, a seemingly strange combination.

(A) In what way was the mining industry reflected in this song with its sorrow about the train being linked to the loss of loved ones? Family is widely recognized as a key component of society.

(B) Discuss your views on how modern employment customs impact family structures.

6. [Here’s a short personal story of mine: Miriam Makeba went into exile during the protest days. She shared the stage with me when I was awarded my PhD at the University of Cape Town in 1983. She was conferred an honorary doctorate. She stood to receive the doctorate and told the audience about how, when in exile, the South African government would not allow her permission to return to home for her mother’s funeral. She announced that she would now sing the song for her mother that she had not been able to sing at her funeral. She sang unaccompanied. It was a hauntingly beautiful experience, while heart-rending.

In this film, Miriam Makeba recounts the song of Mandela being imprisoned.

(A) Discuss the lyrics of the song

(B) the role of artists in providing a narrative of a what was happening in the country.

7. Sibongile Khumalo sings the powerful song Senzenina, translated as: “What have we done?” which was repeatedly sung after the atrocities that followed the events of June 16 1976. While the children protested in the streets, the older musicians encouraged the children. Sophie Mgcina recounts how the “children were killed because of a language, Afrikaans.”

(A) What does she say the mothers told the children in the songs?

(B) Discuss the role of artists in promoting ideologies.

8. Thandi Modise explains: “One morning I woke up and was told I was a ring leader. I was being hunted down I think I was just an average kid, a bit of a loud mouth. But I had also lost friends and the children were being arrested all over, children were being shot down. I thought in 1977 I would be going to medical school. Saw myself as a little country doctor somewhere and all that was you know just blowing in my face so I was angry and I didn’t believe I wanted to go back to school. I was too angry to be a student.”

(A) Discuss your response to this situation of a social/political situation overtaking the ability to focus on education.

(B) Describe how she says the songs changed in nature after the events of 1976 and comment.

9. (A) Reflect with a few comments on the way in which artists are leaders in society.

(B) Whether you’re an artist or not, discuss one or more ways that you might express your voice in your career field to impact change, even if it’s not through any official leadership position?

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