Similarities and differences between Judaism, Christianity and Islam can be revealed both on the levels of form and content. Formally viewed, Christianity and Islam are two of the three greatest world religions, while Judaism is considered to be a national religion. It means that Christianity and Islam are practiced worldwide by people of different origins but the adherents of Judaism tend to belong to a particular nation – Jewish. Judaism is the oldest religion of the three and Islam is the youngest. The religions are interconnected. For example, Christianity stemmed from Judaism and its key figure Jesus Christ as well as His mother Virgin Mary and the Apostles belonged to Judaism.
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The three religions believe in Abraham and all the people being his children. They agree that Moses was one of the first God’s prophets, but disagree about Jesus Christ. Muslims and Jews believe that he was just another prophet, while Christians think He is God.
Although all three religions are monotheistic, the notions of God differ. All three religions believe that God is the origin of life and the Creator of all that exists who continues to care about His creation. God is well-intended and merciful. God’s grace gives people the strength to be closer to what we ought to be. God communicates with people through revelations; His words are recorded in sacred books by His prophets. But while Judaism emphasizes our inability to understand God in all His power and the ensuing prohibition to call God’s name and describe His qualities, Christianity and Islam do call God’s name (God the Father, the Holy Spirit and God the Son; Allah). Christianity understands God to be triune, i.e. He has three representations but is one.
Unlike Judaism, Islam and Christianity have the notions of heaven and hell and believe in the existence of the devil. All the three religions believe in the final judgment and resurrection.
The main principle of Islam is obedience to God. The life of a devout Muslim is focused on following religious regulations. In this respects, Christianity is closer to Islam than Judaism. Christianity maintains the principle of “Creed over Deed”. It means that a true Christian can misbehave to confess and be forgiven because he / she has faith in God. The main virtue of a Christian is belief. Judaism, however, puts Deed ahead of Creed and believes that helping other people and doing good things is first and foremost. It makes Judaism more democratic. A non-Muslim cannot obtain salvation in Islam, a non-Christian cannot obtain salvation in Christianity, but a non-Jew can obtain salvation in Judaism provided he / she follows the Seven Precepts of Noah, which are in the essence quite common morale standards.
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