Qualitative Data Discussion Questions

Qualitative Data Discussion Questions

1 Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. Discuss two strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data.

2 The three types of qualitative research are phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each.

esearchSue Z. Green and Jennifer L. Johnson

And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the father through Him —Colossians 3:17 (English Standard Version)

Essential Questions

· Why are ethical principles important when conducting research on human subjects?

· What is the focus of qualitative nursing research in professional nursing practice?

· What methodologies are used to conduct qualitative research?

· Why should the BSN-prepared nurse critically appraise published research studies?

· How does the BSN-prepared nurse critically appraise published research studies?

Introduction

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One of the hallmarks of any profession is a scientific research base. The nursing profession bases its practice on a solid foundation of evidence developed through research by nurses and results gleaned from multiple disciplines, such as psychology, social work, and medicine. Nurses are called upon to develop a safe practice that is grounded in evidence to promote positive health outcomes in the populations served.Nurses are called upon to develop a safe practice that is grounded in evidence to promote positive health outcomes in the populations served. The continued advancement of nursing research is critical for further development of the nursing profession. The process of conducting nursing research must be grounded in ethics and provide fair treatment of human subjects . A proficient registered nurse must be knowledgeable about ethical principles that are required when conducting nursing research.

Through a variety of methodologies, nurse researchers study phenomena of interest to the profession. For example, a nurse wishing to determine the causative factors related to increased infection rates in patients with urinary catheters may study nursing care procedures for these patients. Likewise, a nurse may desire a deeper understanding of culture on health practices and design a study to learn about these influences.

Nursing is considered to be both an art and a science. The science component requires nurses to seek methodical, logical methods for choosing nursing process actions. In addition, nurses seek answers to practice questions through application of scientific inquiry or research. Researchers may design studies that are quantitative or qualitative in nature. Quantitative design is based on the traditional scientific research design and the science aspect of nursing. Through quantitative design, researchers are able to quantify findings easily. For example, a quantitative study designed to address infection rates will provide factual data about the number of infections occurring and other statistical data.

Through qualitative research methodologies, nurse researchers study aspects of the art of nursing. These may include lived experiences, feelings, and perceptions among other facets of the human experience. For example, the nurse researcher may design a study to learn more about the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors. This information can then be used to prepare the registered nurse to provide care to this population of patients. The baccalaureate-prepared nurse is a consumer of nursing research. In this role, the nurse accesses, appraises, and may participate in clinical research. This chapter will provide an overview of the ethical implications for qualitative nursing research as well as discussion about qualitative nursing research methodologies.

Nursing and Codes of Ethics

Nursing is a profession grounded in ethical practice. Historical foundations of the nursing profession are deeply intertwined with ethical actions by those called to provide care for the sick, needy, and poor. Historically, nursing education curricula have included focus on the foundations of ethics, nursing codes of ethics from the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the International Council of Nursing, as well as the development of professional values as part of the essential elements of baccalaureate nursing education (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008). The codes of ethics are used to guide professional nursing practice and role performance, including qualitative research. Nurse researchers are also guided by the Nuremburg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in pursuit of ethical and safe nursing research (Kawar, Pugh, & Scruth, 2016; Schuster, 1997; United Nations, n.d.; World Medical Association, 2017). In addition to these guiding principles, nurse scientists are also responsible for adhering to federal, state, and local laws pertaining to research on human subjects (Mallari & Tariman, 2017).

As part of the professional role responsibility, the BSN-prepared nurse should engage in the examination of emerging ethical issues in practice and take an active role in solving these dilemmas. The process of ethical problem solving is complex; the nurse must understand basic ethical principles in order to aid in principled decision making. The use of ethical frameworks and decision-making models can guide the nurse through ethical dilemmas. An approach to ethical dilemmas and nursing research that is evidence-based may contribute to patient safety and improved outcomes (Mallari & Tariman, 2017). To fulfill professional role responsibilities, the BSN-prepared nurse should be familiar with both the ANA Code of Ethics and the International Code of Ethics.

ANA Code of Ethics

The first official nursing Code of Ethics was developed by the ANA in 1950 (Epstein & Turner, 2015). The purpose of the original ANA Code of Ethics was to provide a framework to guide professional nursing practice through competence and ethical behaviors. The current ANA Code of Ethics has been through multiple revisions since origination, with the most current version approved by the ANA in 2015. The modern ANA Code of Ethics describes the profession’s “values, obligations, duties, and professional ideals” (Epstein & Turner, 2015, para. 21). The ANA Code of Ethics is an important framework for the registered nurse to use when navigating complex situations and ethical dilemmas in the health care setting. The document is also used as a guiding framework when conducting qualitative nursing research. Provisions 1–3 address nurse and patient relationships, Provisions 4–6 address nurse boundaries of duty and loyalty, and Provisions 7–9 address professional commitments beyond patient encounters. The registered nurse must utilize this framework to develop a professional moral compass and deliver high quality, safe nursing care. In addition, the nurse researcher must apply principles from the ANA Code of Ethics when conducting any type of research. For example, Provision 1, human dignity, compels qualitative nursing researchers to adhere to the patient’s right to self-determination (see Table 2.1). Likewise, Provision 4, ethics encompassing duty and loyalty, fosters accountability expectations for the researcher.

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